I. Map drawn by Jodocus Hondius in 1613
The map drawn by Jodocus Hondius in 1613 depicted the Pracel archipelago (Hoang Sa), including all islands of Viet Nam from southern Bac Bo Gulf to the end of Viet Nam’s southern waters, except for Pulo Condor (Con Dao) and Pulo Cici (Phu Quoc island) which were drawn separately.
II. Map drawn by W. Blaeu in 1645
In the map drawn by W. Blaeu in 1645, the Pracel archipelago (Hoang Sa) was drawn connecting with islands such as Pulo Secca de Mare (Cu Lao Thu i.e. Phu Quy island), Pulo Cambir (Cu Lao Xanh), Pullo Canton (Cu Lao Re i.e. Ly Son island) as a continous chain of islands belonging to Cochinchina territory (Dang Trong).
III. Map drawn by Homann Heirs in 1744
In the map drawn by Homann Heirs in 1744, Hoang Sa archipelago drawings was annotated as “I. Ciampa ” standing for “Islands Ciampa”, i.e. “Ciampa archipelago (belonged to the Kingdom)”. Ciempa or Ciampa was the name western countries called Dang Trong region at that time as they believed this was an old land of the Champa kingdom.
IV. An old map of the Far East, Brion de la Tour, drawn in 1774
The map indicates that Hoang Sa archipelago belongs to the territory of Dang Trong (South Viet Nam) of Dai Viet.
V. Phu Bien Tap Luc / Miscellany on the Pacification at the Frontier
Four pages of Phu Bien Tap Luc / Miscellany on the Pacification at the Frontier written by scholar Le Quy Don in 1776 telling about the foundation and activities of Hoang Sa and Bac Hai flotillas.
VI. The Document Settling a Dispute over a Hull of Hoang Sa Fleet
The document found at My Loi Village, Phu Loc District, Thua Thien-Hue Province, with a content to settle a lawsuit between My Toan Ward (present My Loi Village, Vinh My Commune) and An Bang Ward (Vinh An Commune) about a dispute over a hull of Hoang Sa Fleet adrifting ashore the beach bordering these two wards. According to this document, in 1760, under King Le Hien Tong (1740-1786), there was Hoang Sa Fleet in charge of managing and exploiting products in Hoang Sa archipelago. The orginal Han script document was written on “do” (rhamnoneuron) paper.
VII. The Directive by a General under the Tay Son Dynasty
The Directive by a General under the Tay Son Dynasty, issued on Feburary 14, 1786, gave order that Hoang Sa Fleet sailed four trawlers to Hoang Sa archipelago and other islands to collect gold, silver, copper, tortoise-shells for customs.
VIII. Report of Da Nang’s Leader on June 27th, 1830
One of the two reports of Da Nang’s leader on June 27th in 1830 (the 11th King Minh Mang year), sent to the court with a content that a trade ship from France had been rescued after having crashed into a shoal in west Hoang Sa (Cat Vang area).
IX. Quang Ngai Provincial Mandarin Dispatches Ships to Guard Hoang Sa
A four-page intact order by the Dang family on Ly Son Island (Quang Ngai), 36cm long, 24cm wide, clearly noted that on April 15th in 1834 (the 15th King Minh Mang year), Quang Ngai Provincial mandarin dispatched a fleet of three ships to guard Hoang Sa island. According to various researchers, though it included a few pages, this order contained a lot of precious information which clearly named indentification, home towns of each warships complying with orders by the court to take the guard in Hoang Sa archipelago. Apart from Ly Son island district, other coastal locations in Quang Ngai Province were taking their responsibility to Hoang Sa archipelago.
X. Wood-block under Nguyen Dynasty
The wood-block under Nguyen Dynasty, recorded in the book, “Dai Nam thuc luc chinh bien de nhi ky”, volume 165 in the 17th Minh Mang year (1836), recorded that the Ministry of Public Works reported to the court on the very important Hoang Sa under our maritime boundary.
XI. Report by Ministry of Public Works on July 13th, 1837
A report by Ministry of Public Works on July 13th, 1837 (the 18th King Minh Mang year) showed that having returned from Hoang Sa, the province had to give instructions to Vo Van Hung, Pham Van Sanh and Luu Duc Truc, and so on, apart from fleet led by Pham Van Bien.
XII. Report by Ministry of Public Works on June 21st, 1838
A report by Ministry of Public Works on June 21st, 1838 (the 19th King Minh Mang year) showed a survey and mapping of Hoang Sa. The report wrote that people dispatched to Hoang Sa were led by Do Mau Thuong and Le Trong Ba with Vu Van Hung as a guide. Hung said that they had completed surveying three out of four important places in Hoang Sa archipelago.
This post is also available in: Vietnamese